Cryogenic Freezing or Lipolysis is a portmanteau of "cryogenic", meaning the branch of physics that deals with the production and effects of very low temperatures, and "lipolysis", meaning the breakdown of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis to release fatty acids. The process is also known as "fat freezing".
Fat Freeze is a unique, clinically proven method for destroying adipocytes, aka fat cells. Sub Zero's technology is based on the principle that adipocytes are more susceptible to cooling than any other skin cells. Tissue is drawn into the handpiece under moderate vacuum and the selected temperature is modulated by thermoelectric elements and controlled by sensors that monitor the heat flux out of the tissue. Precise application of cold temperatures triggers the death of adipocytes that are subsequently engulfed and digested by macrophages. Eventually, macrophages and other phagocytes surround, envelope, and digest the lipid cells as part of the body’s natural response to injury.
This results in the adipocyte volume significantly decreasing. In other words, a controlled cooling is applied to the skin at a temperature of +5 to −5 °C so that targeted fat cells are destroyed and subcutaneous fat tissue is reduced without damage to the skin. The patient is then discharged and is free to resume normal activities immediately after treatment.